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Michael writes about his experience and offers tips for other aspiring entrepreneurs who wish to make a living with sports bookmaking.
Marketing & SEO
Price Per Head
Listed Pitcher: When you are going to bet on a baseball game with listed pitchers, the ones listed for the two teams must start the game, and a pitcher is said to have started a match after throwing the initial pitch for his team. In the event of one of the listed pitchers not starting, then the wager is voided and the funds are returned to the player..
This one is very similar to a point spread; the difference is that in baseball you are dealing with runs and not points.
A betting line on baseball will always depend largely on who the listed pitchers for the game are, and you are offered four different options:
Even though it is said that you can get better profits when wagering on baseball, most people will avoid placing wagers on this sport because the betting lines might appear a bit different than the regular point spread, and because we want to shed some light on the subject, we have created this article.
This is the first element we should analyze. So, as long as your chosen pitcher starts, you will have an active bet.
On the other hand, if you were to bet on a 20 cent line, you would be getting a +125 line on Milwaukee, which means fewer profits, and even though it doesn’t sound as a lot of cash, when it comes to losing 10 cents on every dollar during a full baseball season, losses can be considerable.
Michael Hill is an avid sports fan and a sports writer who has been in the betting and price per head industry for years. In baseball, an experienced bettor will always go for the “Dime Line”, which is a line with a ten cent difference between the favorite and the underdog (for example, a bet with the Angels as favorites at -145 and the Brewers as underdogs at +135.
Here you are betting on the combined number of runs accumulated by both teams at the end of a given game, and on baseball, runs on extra innings will also count when the game has gone over nine innings.
Team action against a listed pitcher: This one is very similar to the previous one, the only difference is that here you need the opposite listed pitcher to start the game, the one for your chosen team can vary and you will still have action.
Team action: This option allows you place a wager that doesn’t depend on pitchers, although if there is a change in listed pitchers, the odds might vary.
Specifying a pitcher: When you bet using this option, you need to choose the pitcher for the team you are betting on, the one for the other team might vary
Latest posts by Max Lyons (see all)
It was so unusual at the time .
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . Louis.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Update note:Dr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Dr. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Less Than Zero
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
From a front-line perspective
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
Gateway to the West
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The Road to Zero
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
But, it doesn’t end there.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
AIDS now had a face.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Memory Elvin Lewis
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. 1952-1953).
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
This makes little sense.
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When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our life.Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality
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If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com
Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.
Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.
===> Lucky Moon Days
Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.
About the Author:
Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Learn to connect and the world is yours.Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha. Uma regio muito privilegiada quanto paisagem e a pureza do ar.Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers
Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.
People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. In other words, what goes around, comes around. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. This number varies by the day of the week. If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.
Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.
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Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.
Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.
Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.
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If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.
Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book
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Get additional details about canli bahis oranlari http://canlibahis.info
You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations. In the same time if the bookmarker is offering a cost then that bookmarker already inside a excellent position to create a healthier profit on the supply price tag.
In recent times it is not so tough getting reputable betting strategies. Naturally you may need to become completely sure with the service; a very good service or on line service with credible on the internet evaluations will serve as an excellent thrust to your plans. The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. Winners are a group of men and women who do their homework the challenging way. Sports betting and betting tipster sites are there in abundance so you genuinely must careful about applying them. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. Based on your analysis you could decide to join or appear for other sites, this could in the end be the distinction involving accomplishment and failure.
In the real globe scenario there are actually a huge selection of losers as against a handful of winners. Your selection must not be based on your liking for a particular sport or sportsperson. In the event you can obtain on the web testimonials for that website then that must inform you how well other users have located the services to become. Thus it will not matter which soccer team wins or which player scores the purpose or which horse crosses the post 1st the bookmaker will in turn a superb profit from all those that placed incorrect bets and pay only individuals who got it ideal.
A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.
Are you currently are budding punter trying to earn money from on the net sports betting? On the internet sport betting is really serious business and there runs a higher risk of generating a loss so a better and informed position will improve your possibilities of producing a profit. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. You might need to incur losses at instances but having a experienced service you will be in a position to maximize income and lessen the risk of creating a loss.
Persons looking to make use of sports betting tipster service should really do a thorough check up on the website’s service. A very good service is 1 that offers you a free of charge trail offer, that way you can test their services and when you are sure their solutions are what you’re seeking for then you definitely can go ahead and spend for it.. Losing a handful of dollars in registration or sign up charge will be as huge a letdown as losing a huge selection of dollars parked inside your account would when a service cheats you.
It truly is also not probable that employing the most beneficial bet tipsters service you can win every single time
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Customer retention is with you. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. . The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills.
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise
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The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.
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By Puerto Rican law, all casinos have to be located on the property of hotels or resorts.
The gorgeous island of Puerto Rico is home to about a dozen old-world-style casinos. First, each island has its own laws and rules when it comes to gambling, so be sure to find out the details about the island you visit. The Atlantis also features several restaurants, outdoor terraces, and gaming lessons for the novice gambler. All players are allowed to see one of the dealer’s cards, which is dealt face up. Second, the hours that some casinos are open may vary depending on the season, so find out ahead of time before making your plans. The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino is a luxurious and exciting casino located within a plush hotel that has great choices of various games, slots, and other gambling opportunities.
The world-famous Atlantis Casino is the largest casino located in the Caribbean. So not only can you wage bets during your sunny island vacation, but you will also find many other ways to let your hair down at Caribbean gambling palaces. Caribbean stud poker is a combination of blackjack and poker – the rules of play are similar between the two games. Vincent and St. There are so many choices when it comes to gambling in the Caribbean that you’re sure to find the right island with the perfect casino to fit your style and your ideal vacation. Along with state-of-the-art slot machines, table games, and other types of gaming fun, Caribbean casinos also offer other nightlife options including dance clubs, discos, and bars. Many of these glamorous gambling establishments are located in the historic city of San Juan, and most require that their patrons dress formally.
Some popular casinos on the island include the Hyatt Regency Cerromar, Hilton Ponce and Casino, Westin Rio Mar Resort Casino, Ritz Carlton San Juan, which is the first Ritz Carlton casino, and many, many more. The four largest casinos in The Bahamas are the Atlantis Casino on Paradise Island, the Crystal Palace Casino on New Providence Island, and The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino and Our Lucaya, both on Grand Bahama Island.
Other islands in the Caribbean that feature dazzling casinos and exciting gambling are the Dominican Republic, Aruba, Curacao, St. Finally, the newest casino in the Bahamas is Our Lucaya Resort, which offers several gambling options.
Gamers are often drawn to The Bahamas which is popular for great casinos and gambling action. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua.
The Caribbean region has a lot of hot gaming spots and casinos.
Gambling in The Bahamas
Caribbean Stud Poker
While visiting the Caribbean travelers will find a number of glitzy casinos and hotels and resorts with on-site gambling. Although gambling is illegal for residents of The Bahamas, tourists can try their luck at any of the region’s spectacular casinos. Maarten, St. And finally, no one under the age of 18 is allowed in Caribbean casinos, so schedule other activities for the youngsters before you hit the casinos.
The Crystal Palace Casino is another sizzling casino found in The Bahamas. The biggest difference between Caribbean stud poker and traditional poker is that instead of playing against other players, you go against the dealer. Casinos in Puerto Rico are some of the most exciting in the Caribbean region because of their extravagant historical décor, hot gaming, as well as their award-winning restaurants, live entertainment, array of bars and lounges, and much more.
This article was posted on February 13, 2006
Before heading to the slot machines, there are a few things casino patrons should remember. Since it began in Aruba, the popularity of Caribbean stud poker has grown tremendously in the region and is even played in Las Vegas. But unlike American and European casinos, the gambling atmosphere in the Caribbean is more relaxed, and most of the island casinos are not open 24 hours a day. The Atlantis’ expansive 30,000-square-foot area, which includes 78 table games and approximately 1,000 slot machines, has helped earned the Atlantis Casino its reputation as an immaculate gambling palace. This poker variation started in Aruba in the 1980s, reportedly by some cruise ship directors who were out to make a buck.
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Caribbean Islands Featuring Casinos
Casinos in Puerto Rico
. Located on the premises of the Wyndham Nassau Resort on Cable Beach, the Crystal Palace Casino has about 700 slot machines and 38 tables for games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, and baccarat.
by: Danielle Mitchell
Compared to many other popular casino card games, Caribbean stud poker has a pretty short history. The combination of sugar-sand beaches and tropical island ambiance with all the glamor and excitement of Las Vegas makes for an ideal vacation destination for many travelers. During your stay in Puerto Rico, you can enjoy fine dining, exciting nightlife, and spectacular gambling fun all under one roof
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It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.
The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. . Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times.
As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.
The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter
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Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.
Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.
By: Pedro Walker
Online-betting.me.uk provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets
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If you love playing the slot machines, here are some winning results to remind you that hitting the big one can, and does happen. The excitement of the casino floor, and the hopefulness of the divine possibility of striking it rich. www.vegas.com/gaming/jackpots/
Money Madness $710,196 1/27/2013 MGM Grand
Money Madness $602,950 1/4/2013 The Palazzo
Wheel of Fortune $1,264,173 1/4/2013 Flamingo
Money Madness $2,832,045 12/29/2012 Caesars Palace
Wheel of Fortune $249,703 12/21/2012 South Point
On your next visit to Las Vegas, you may want to checkout some of these hot slot games which really seem to be the ones to play, because of the winning history.
Zambio. In Las Vegas, it’s go big or go home! The top five Las Vegas hotel casinos featured in the attached slideshow, lead the way in sophistication, style and excitement. The “Wheel of Fortune” slots may be the hottest slot machines in Vegas, followed by “Money Madness.” Game-on!
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $931,740.44 8/1/2012 Mandalay Bay
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,112,650 7/4/2012 Wynn Las Vegas
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,064,121.24 6/21/2012 Hard Rock Hotel & Casino
Money Madness $2,256,246.45 5/28/2012 The Orleans
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $412,640.33 5/26/2012 Caesars Palace
In Las Vegas, the lights are brighter, the colors are bolder and the bets are bigger.
Las Vegas offers entertainment, shopping, fine dining, and sightseeing attractions. But, the true allure of Las Vegas, is gaming.
You can work hard all of your life to amass a fortune.
Checkout the slideshow pictures to see the “Top 5 Casinos.” (Travel Adviser)
Megabucks $1 $17.3 million 12/17/2012 M Resort
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $273,884.78 10/27/2012 McCarran International Airport
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,926,336.42 10/20/2012 Harrah’s
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $795,551.20 10/20/2012 California
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $225,081.10 8/4/2012 LVH – Las Vegas Hotel & Casino
The list of winning slots games, prize winnings, dates and winning casinos.
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,224,958.16 5/1/2012 Rio All-Suite Hotel & Casino
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,216,081.79 4/5/2012 The Venetian
Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,350,270.42 3/12/2012 Tropicana Laughlin
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $361,025.76 3/12/2012 Bill’s Gamblin’ Hall & Saloon
Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $489,456.12 2/12/2012 Sam’s Town Hotel & Gambling Hall
This city of excess, is truly one of a kind. Winning a fortune on a one-dollar slot machine is a pretty awesome notion, however slim the odds.
Check out Vegas.com for up to the minute jackpot totals and list of jackpot hits and locations. Even the accommodations in Las Vegas are overly opulent
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Justin Leonard is 43 years old and he has 12 PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2008.
6. He has four career PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2013. He has 12 PGA Tour wins. Branden Grace missed the cut at the Masters last week but the 27 year old has seven European Tour wins including the 2016 Qatar Masters in January. The big news for the 2016 RBC Heritage is that Jason Day is in the field and he is easily the highest ranked golfer here this week.
Luke Donald is a fomer #1 ranked golfer but he’s not won a tournament since 2012. Billy Horschel tied for 17th at the Masters last week which is not bad but Horschel only has three tour wins and his last win was at the Tour Championship in 2014.
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 RBC Heritage!
Boo Weekley won the RBC Heritage in back-to-back years in 2007 and 2008. He’s a talented golfer but he never wins. Pettersson has missed the cut in his last two PGA tournaments.
2. Kevin Kisner – 25 to 1
Matt Kuchar tied for 24th at the Masters. Matt Kuchar, Zach Johnson – 22 to 1 odds each
Listed below are all the PGA golfers with odds of 50 to 1 or less with comments. He’s 32 years old and his only PGA Tour win came last November in the RSM Classic. Fitzpatrick has a lot of talent and he won his first pro tournament last October at the 2015 British Masters on the European Tour. Zach Johnson has not won since capturing his second major at the 2015 British Open last July.
Bill Haas tied for 24th last week at the Masters. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was in the RBC Heritage in 2014. That was the last of his five PGA Tour wins. He missed the cut last week but improvement is expected this week.
Kevin Kisner tied for 37th place at the Masters last week. He’s a tough bet here at only 25 to 1 odds.
Justin Leonard – 175 to 1 odds
Young 21 year old Matthew Fitzpatrick from England tied for 7th at the Masters earning himself a return trip next year. Justin Thomas tied for 39th at the Masters. Haas has six PGA Tour wins with his last win coming in January of 2015. Snedeker also won this tournament in 2011.
Graeme McDowell won the RBC Heritage in 2013. Boo made the cut in his last two tournaments but he was no threat to win either time.
Aaron Baddeley won the RBC Heritage in 2006. Snedeker has eight PGA Tour wins including his latest win which was at the 2016 Farmers Insurance Open in early February. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament.
Davis Love III – 250 to 1 odds
Kevin Na has now played in 312 PGA events and he only has one win. If Jason Day falters this week this kid could win.. He does have 13 European Tour wins but his last win was in 2014.
T-13. Jason Day – 5.5 to 1 odds
Carl Pettersson – 225 to 1 odds
T-8. He has 21 PGA Tour wins including a shocker last year at the 2015 Wyndham Championship at age 51.
Carl Pettersson from Sweden won the RBC Heritage in 2012. Baddeley missed the cut at Houston two weeks ago in his last start. Davis tied for 42nd last week at the Masters. Paul Casey has only won once on the PGA Tour back in 2009. Bill Haas, Justin Thomas – 33 to 1 odds each
Davis Love III holds the record for most wins in this tournament with five but his last win here was in 2005. Charley Hoffman tied for 29th at the Masters last week. In his last start, Brian missed the cut at the Valspar Championship over a month ago.
The 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from April 14-17, 2016, at the Harbor Town Golf Links at the Sea Pines Resort on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Jason Dufner, Charles Howell, Charley Hoffman, Tony Finau, Luke Donald, Graeme McDowell – 50 to 1 odds each
Brandt Snedeker tied with Jason Day last week in 10th place at the Masters. Weekley also won at Colonial in 2013 for three career PGA Tour wins. Paul Casey – 16 to 1
Bryson DeChambeau – 66 to 1 odds
After a 10th place tie in the Masters last week, Jason Day is still ranked as the #1 golfer in the world and he’s the fairly heavy favorite to win the 2016 RBC Heritage at betting odds of 5.5 to 1. Then a number of notable golfers are also listed with comments who have much higher odds this week to win the 2016 RBC Heritage.
After being the low amateur at the Masters and tying for 21st place overall, Bryson DeChambeau is turning pro for the 2016 RBC Heritage.Not many golfers win their pro debuts and this guy should be higher than 66 to 1 odds this week.
7. Thomas is 22 years old and he won for the first time on tour last November in the 2015 CIMB Classic.
T-10. Davis Love III (1987, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2003) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five followed by Hale Irwin (1971, 1973, 1994) with three wins.
4. Prior to The Masters, Jason Day won the Arnold Palmer and the WGC Match play in back-to-back weeks but he took a week off before the Masters. Billy Horschel, Branden Grace, Kevin Na – 40 to 1 odds each
1. Charles Howell has two wins on tour in 463 starts. He’ll win this week if he’s back to his previous form but is 5.5 to 1 odds worth the risk?
Aaron Baddeley – 140 to 1 odds
3. The rest of these golfers at 50 to 1 odds each did not play last week in the major.
Stewart Cink has wins in this tournament in both 2000 and 2004. He missed the cut last week as did Jason Dufner. Matthew Fitzpatrick – 30 to 1
Stewart Cink – 150 to 1 odds
Brian Gay won this tournament in 2009. He’s 44 years old and he has six wins on the PGA Tour with his last win coming in 2009 at The British Open for his only career major.
The RBC Heritage golf tournament dates back to 1969 when Arnold Palmer won the inaugural event. Tony Finau won for the first time on tour on March 27, 2016 at the Puerto Rico Open, an alternate PGA Tour event. Brandt Snedeker – 20 to 1
Paul Casey tied for 4th at Augusta last week and now he’s the second choice in the betting odds to win this week at 16 to 1. He’s got three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2011.
Boo Weekley – 140 to 1 odds
Justin Leonard won this tournament in 2002